Vertigo is usually caused by a disturbance of the inner ear system that deals with balance. And the commonest cause of vertigo is BPPV or Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. This is due to the presence of floating particles in the normally clear fluid of the balance system (posterior semicircular canals). BPPV presents as a postural vertigo which lasts for a few seconds, can be quite severe and is associated with nausea and sometimes vomiting. This is usually seen in people when they turn over in bed. Diagnosis is usually straightforward, though some tests may be required to rule out other causes. Treatment is also straightforward and is usually by a series of controlled head movements called the Epley maneuver.
Many other ear causes can result in Vertigo. A detailed assessment may be required to elicit the cause of the dizziness so that appropriate therapy can be started.
Specialized tests such as E CochG, Vemp, Video-Nystagmography (VNG) etc may also be required in some patients.
Most patients with vertigo are treated with medication, and very few require adjunctive procedures.
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